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Exercise:

Section 1

Direction to solve :
Directions: In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to distinguish between 'strong' argument and weak argument. A strong argument must be 'both' important and directly relate to the question. A weak argument may not be related to the trivial aspect of the question. Each question below is followed by three arguments numbered I, II and III. You have to decide which of the arguments is 'strong' and which is 'weak'.

01. Statement: Should all the school teachers be debarred from giving private tuitions?
Arguments:
I. No. The needy students will be deprived of the expertise of these teachers.
II. Yes. This is an injustice to the unemployed educated people who can earn their living by giving tuitions.
III. Yes. Only then the quality of teaching in schools will improve.
IV. Yes. Now salary of these teachers is reasonable
A. None is strong B. Only I and II are strong
C. Only II and III are strong D. Only I and III are strong
E. All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only I and III are strong

Explanation:
'Hire and fire policy' implies 'taking up the performing employees and discarding the non-performing ones'. Clearly, such a policy would stand out to encourage employees to work hard and devotedly to retain their jobs and thus enhance productivity and profitability of the organizations. So, both arguments I and III hold strong. Argument II seems to be vague 

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02. Statement: Should the public sector undertakings be kilo wed to adopt hire and fire policy?
Arguments:
I. Yes. This will help the public sector undertakings to get rid of non-performing employees and reward the performing employees.
II. No. This will give an unjust handle to the management and they may use it indiscriminately.
III. Yes. This will help increase the level of efficiency of these organizations and these will become profitable establishments.
A. None is strong B. Only I and II are strong
C. Only II and III are strong D. Only I and III are strong
E. All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only I and III are strong

Explanation:
'Hire and fire policy' implies 'taking up the performing employees and discarding the non-performing ones'. Clearly, such a policy would stand out to encourage employees to work hard and devotedly to retain their jobs and thus enhance productivity and profitability of the organizations. So, both arguments I and III hold strong. Argument II seems to be vague in the light of this.

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03. Statement: Are nuclear families better than joint families?
Arguments:
I. No. Joint families ensure security and also reduce the burden of work.
II. Yes. Nuclear families ensure greater freedom.
A. Only argument I is strong B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Both I and II are strong

Explanation:
Clearly, with so many people around in a joint family, there is more security. Also, work is shared. So, argument I holds. In nuclear families, there are lesser number of people and so lesser responsibilities and more freedom. Thus, II also holds

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04. Statement: Should there be compulsory medical examination of both the man and the woman before they marry each other?
Arguments:
I. No. This is an intrusion to the privacy of an individual and hence cannot be tolerated.
II. Yes. This will substantially reduce the risk of giving birth to children with serious ailments.
A. Only argument I is strong B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only argument II is strong

Explanation:
Clearly, such a step would help to prevent the growth of diseases like AIDS. So, only argument II is strong.

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05. Statement: Should India make efforts to harness solar energy to fulfil its energy requirements?
Arguments:
I. Yes, Most of the energy sources used at present is exhaustible.
II. No. Harnessing solar energy requires a lot of capital, which India lacks in.
A. Only argument I is strong B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only argument I is strong

Explanation:
Clearly, harnessing solar energy will be helpful as it is an inexhaustible resource unlike other resources. So, argument I holds. But argument II is vague as solar energy is the cheapest form of energy.

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06. 6.Statement: Should cottage industries be encouraged in rural areas?
Arguments:
I. Yes. Rural people are creative.
II. Yes. This would help to solve the problem of unemployment to some extent.
A. Only argument I is strong B. Only argument II is strong
C. Only argument II is strong D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only argument II is strong

Explanation:
Clearly, cottage industries need to be promoted to create more job opportunities for rural people in the villages themselves. The reason that rural people are creative is vague. So, only argument II holds.

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07. Statement Should religion be taught in our schools?
Arguments
I. No, ours is a secular state.
II. Yes, teaching religion helps inculcate moral values among children.
III. No. how can one dream of such a step when we want the young generation to fulfill its role in the 21st century.
A. All are strong B. None is strong
C. Only I is strong       D. Only II is strong
E. I and III are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: All are strong

Explanation:
Secular state does not mean neglecting religion and religion value. So, argument I is not strong. Argument II is strong because teaching religion will be help to inculcate moral values among children. Teaching religion to young generation will be helpful to fulfill their role in 21st century. So, argument III is not strong.

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08. Statement Should there be a total ban on tobacco product and smoking in India?
Arguments
I. Yes, it is wrong to smoke away millions of money?
II. No, it will throw thousands of workers in the tobacco industry out of employment.
III. No, the government will lose huge amount of money as it will not care by way of taxes on these products.
A. None is strong         B. I and II are strong
C. II is strong D. II and III are strong
E. All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: I and II are strong

Explanation:
Argument I is strong because millions of money is spent on tobacco products and smoking, and that should be saved. It is also true that comuple ban on tobacco products and smoking will throat out thousands of workers in these industries out of work. So, argument II is strong. Argument III is not strong because the heath of people should not be compromised to earn money through taxes.

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09. Statement Should the government ban all forms of protests including strikes and precessions?

Arguments

I. Yes, this is the only way to teach discipline to the employees.
II. No, government cannot deprive its citizens of their basic rights.
III. Yes, this is the only way to ensure maximum productivity without disruption of work.
A. Only II is strong       B. I and II are strong
C. III is strong D. I and III are strong
E.  All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only II is strong      

Explanation:
Arguments I and III are not strong due to the word 'only'. Argument II is strong because strike is a basic right of employees and government should not deprive it.

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10. Statement :Should India acquire/manufacture the latest nuclear weapons?
Arguments

I. Yes, the enemies of India are improving their weapons continuously and it becomes imperative to protect the sovereignty and integrity of the country.
II. No, instead the money should be diverted to development activities.
III. No, the international community will isolate Indians and this will bring a setback to India economy.

A. Only I is strong        B. I and III are strong
C. I and II are strong     D. All are strong 
E. None of these

Answer and Explanation

Answer: All are strong 

Explanation:
If enemies of India are improving their weapons then India should also develop the latest nuclear weapons. India is a developing country and a huge amount will spent to acquire the latest nuclear weapons, so that money should be diverted to development activities. International Community may also isolate Indians and that may be a setback to Indian Economy. So, all the three arguments are strong.

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11. Statement Should the system of Lok Adalats and mobile courts be encouraged in India?

Arguments
I. Yes, it helps to grant speedy justice to the masses.
II. Yes, the dispensing of minor cases at this level would reduce the burden on the higher courts.
III. No, these courts are usually partial in justice,
A. I and II are strong     B. II and III are strong 
C. I and III are strong    D. All are strong 
E. Only I is strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: I and II are strong    

Explanation:
The system of Lok Adalats and mobile courts will be helpful to grant speedy justice to the masses. At present lacks of cases are pending in different courts of India. Many of them are for minor causes. So, these, cases should be dispensed in these Lok Adalats and mobile courts. So arguments I and II are strong. Argument HI is not strong because it is not providing proper reasons behind it.

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12. Statement Should seniority be the only criterion for the promotion?
Arguments
I. No, it would be an injustice to those juniors who are more deserving and suitable for higher positions than their senior counterparts.
II. Yes, otherwise senior employees do feel humiliated.
III. Yes, senior employees are more experienced and must be rewarded for the same.
A.  None is strong       
B. I is strong 
C. I and III are strong    D. I and II are strong
E. All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: I is strong 

Explanation:
Productivity and profitability are most important factors for an organization. This can be done by promoting deceiving candidate irrespective of seniority. So, argument I is strong but II and III are not strong.

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13.  Statement Is caste-based reservation policy in professional colleges justified?
Arguments

I. Yes, the step is a must to bring the underprivileged at par with the privileged ones.
II. No, it obstructs the establishment of a classless society.
III. Yes, this will help the backward castes and classes of people to come out of the oppression of upper caste people.
A. I and II are strong B. Only II is strong
C. II and III are strong D. I and in are strong
E. All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only II is strong

Explanation:

Arguments I and III are not strong due to the words 'must' and 'oppression', respectively. We are talking about professional level, so caste should not come in this matter. So, argument II is strong.

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14. Statement Should Government established higher level Institutes of Technology (IITs) be privatized?
Arguments

I. Yes, privatization will make these institutes financially healthy, competitive and quality conscious.
II. Yes, privatization is the key of the new era can we survive without it?
III. No, standard of education of these institutes will fall.
A. None is strong         B. All are strong
C. Only I is strong        D. I and III are strong
E. II and III are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: None is strong        

Explanation:
From the statement, it is not clear that IITs are facing any problem. At present many private run institutes or far behind them. So, privatization will not be helpful. -So, arguments I and II are not strong. It is not clear that why standard of education will fall when IITs are privatized. So, argument III is also not strong.

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15. Statement Should India immediately stop digging coal form its mines?

Arguments
I. Yes, the present stock of coal will not last long if we continue mining at the present rate.
II. No, we do not have alternate energy source of sufficient quantity.
III. No, this will put millions of people at a disadvantage and their lives will get adversely
affected and also the industry.
A. Only I and II are strong B. Only II and III are strong
C. Only I and III are strong D. All are strong
E. None is strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer: Only II and III are strong

Explanation:
Stock of coal is limited, then it does not mean that its production should be stopped. So, argument I is not strong. Arguments II and III are strong, because alternate energy source are available in limited quantity and a large number of people are dependent on coal, so they will be affected.

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16. Statement Should woman be given equal opportunity in the matter of employment in every felid?
Arguments
I. Yes, they are equally capable.
II. No, they have to shoulder household responsibilities.
III. Yes, they should also go into the outside world.
A. Only I is strong        B. I and II strong 
C. II and III are strong D.  I and III are strong 
E. All are strong

Answer and Explanation

Answer:  I and III are strong 

Explanation:
 Arguments I and in are strong because women are equally capable as men and they should also get into the outside world for self development and self dependent. Argument II is not strong because they should not be confined to only household responsibilities.

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